Protection from BCG/LPS-induced liver injury
The levels of ALT and AST were signiﬁcantly (P < 0.01) higher in the model group than in the normal control group (Table 3). This indicated that BCG + LPS induced liver injury. Cyclophosphamide could suppress the activities of ALT and AST as expected. GA reduced liver injury because the ALT and AST levels in the GA treated groups were signiﬁcantly (P < 0.01) lower than those in the model group. However, GA at the treated dosages appeared to be not more effective than cyclophosphamide for ALT. The models of CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity and BCG + LPS-induced immunity liver injury models are conventionally used to investigate novel liver protective agents. Administration of CCl4 and BCG + LPS caused a rapid increase in ALT and AST levels, which reﬂect liver injury. Serum transaminase elevation has been reported to be associated with a number of inﬂammatory disorders (Hoder and Wilkinson 1980) and hepatocellular damages (Sinha and Saran 1972). Leakage of large quantities of enzymes into theblood stream is often associated with massive necrosis of liver (Rees and Spector 1961). CCl4induced acute liver injury is similar to the damage of acute hepatitis (Recknagel 1967). The present study indicated that GA could reduce ALT and AST levels in the treated mice, implying that GA had a hepatoprotective effect on CCl4- and BCG + LPS-induced liver injuries. The GA roles in antiviral activity and reduction of liver injury illustrated in this study suggested that GA had potential to be a antihepatitis medicine, though further investigation on the mechanism of GA actions is necessary.
Male KM mice were randomly divided into ﬁve group of ten in each group. Each animal (except normal group) was given 0.2 ml Bacille Calmette-Gue ´rin (containing 5 · 106 bacteria, i.v) on the ﬁrst day, and 7.5 lg lipopolysaccharide (i.v.) after administration with ganoderic acid or standard reference cyclophosphamide (the model group did not receive ganoderic acid and cyclophosphamide) for 10 consecutive days. Sixteen hours after giving lipopolysaccharide, the blood of each animal was withdrawn from the eye socket, and the activities of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were measured. Values are mean – S.D. (n = 10) aStatistically signiﬁcant when compared with the normal data (P < 0.01) bStatistically signiﬁcant when compared with the model data in the same columns (P < 0.01)